DNA-Deoxyribonucleic- A chemical insides of all cells that carries the genetic instrument for making living organisms.

CHROMOSOMES are paired threadlike “packages” of long segments of DNA contained within the nucleus of each cell. In humans there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. In 22 pairs both members are essentially identical, one deriving from the mother, the other from the father.

The 23rd pair is different. In females this pair has 2 like chromosomes called “X”. In males it comprises one “X” and one “Y”, two very dissimilar chromosomes. It is these chromosome differences which determines sex.

Y-Chromosome-Human sex is determined by the X and Y chromosome. A female has 2X-chromosome and a male has an X and a Y-chromosome. When a child is conceived it gets one chromosome from it’s mother and one from it’s father. The chromosome from the mother will always be an X but the one from the father will be either an X or a Y. If the child gets the X she will be a girl. If the child gets the Y he will be a boy.

The Y chromosome causes maleness. It is transmitted by fathers only to their sons. This means if you are researching your paternal side of your family you must have a male descendent DNA donor from your oldest known ancestor. This descendent must have the same surname.

Matching DNA Benefits:

(1) Indicates that you and another share a common ancestor

(2) Gives you a rough idea of how far back your common ancestor lived.

(3) Provides evidence that suspected lines are connected.

(4) Provides proof that two individuals or suspected lines are NOT


The DNA trail will also show the region of the earth your ancient ancestors lived. DNA is an aid to confirm and advance your paper trail.

Info from Blair DNA Project: http://blairdna.com/dna101.html